4VG Mingmen 命门 (命門)

prononciation

Articles connexes : 3VG - 5VG - Méridien -
WHO 2009

1. Dénomination

1.1. Traduction

命门
mìngmén
Porte de la vie (Nguyen Van Nghi 1971, Pan 1993, Lade 1994)
Porte du destin (Laurent 2000)
Porte de la vitalité (Laurent 2000)
Life Gate (Ellis 1989, Li Ding 1992)
  • Zhou Mei-sheng 1984 : ming life; of vital importance. men gate see Yunmen ( 2P )
  • Guillaume 1995 : Ming 命 ( Ricci 3514 ) : ordonner de, commander ; ordre, décret du Ciel, mandat du Ciel, vie. Men ( Ricci 3426 ) : porte, portail, voie d'accès, entrée ou sortie, ouverture, orifice.

1.2. Origine

1.3. Explication du nom

  • Zhou Mei-sheng 1984 : Mingmen This point lies between the two Shenshu points ( 23V ), it is of vital importance, it has a lot to do with life and it is the gate through which the energy of life gets in or out.
  • Ellis 1989 : A long-standing belief amongst the Chinese is that the life essence is located in the area below the navel, which is called the life gate. The Classic of Difficult Issues calls this location “the area between the two kidneys.” It is also known as the Cinnabar Field 丹田 dantian ) and the Jade Capital 玉都 yu du . The life gate is sometimes equated with the womb in females and the palace of essence in males. It is the sea of blood and essence. GV-4 is located between the kidney shu points on the back side of this region, and is considered to be a major point in influencing the life gate.
  • Li Ding 1992 : “Ming” 命门 means vital and living. “Men” 门 again means gate. The name implies that this point is the gate of life. Mingmen (Du 4), located between the two Shenshu (U.B.23) [23V] points, is an important point for the treatment of disorders related to the kidney, being the basic foundation of the body constitution. Hence the name Mingmen (Life Gate).
  • Pan 1993 : Les Reins sont le lieu de naissance du Yuan Qi (Qi originel). C'est pourquoi le point Mingmen est appelé « Porte de la vie ».
  • WHO 1993 : Ming : life; men : door. The kidney is the vital source. The point is between Shenshu, like a door for the Qi of the kidney.
  • Lade 1994 : le nom fait référence au rôle important de ce point pour nourrir et stabiliser les Reins et le “champ de cinabre” (voir VC-5). Pour les Taoïstes, la zone du dos qui s'étend de l'horizontale de l'ombilic à 3 distances environ au-dessous est considérée comme un couloir pour le Qi Originel, le Qi des Reins et l'Essence, qui, en fonction de leur force ou de leur faiblesse relative, constituent le niveau de base de la vitalité de l'organisme.
  • Laurent 2000 : Ming est en rapport avec le lot de vie alloué à chacun, c'est à dire l'énergie originelle, Yuan, conservée par les Reins. Le point est situé entre les deux Shenshu 23V qui sont les points Shu des Reins dans le dos, d'où son importance. Nanjing 36° difficulté “Mingmen, c'est là ou réside Jing/Shen, là où se rattache l'énergie primordiale”.
  • Xie Zhu-Fan 2002 : 1) life gate; vital gate: the house of water and fire as the root of life, closely related to the kidney both physiologically and pathologically. The genuine fire in the life gate, i.e. life gate fire, refers to kidney fire, and the genuine water in the life gate refers to kidney yin. (2) mingmen (GV4): an acupoint on the lower back and on the posterior midline, in the depression below the spinous process of the 2nd lumbar vertebra

1.4. Noms secondaires

Jinggong 宫精 Palace of Essence
Palais du Jing
Ellis 1989
Yi Xue Yuan Shi (Guillaume 1995), Laurent 2000
zhu zhang 竹杖 Bamboo stick
bâton de bambou
Ellis 1989
Laurent 2000
shu lei Connected
connexions successives
Ellis 1989
Jia Yi Jing (Guillaume 1995), Laurent 2000

1.5. Translittérations

  • Ming Menn (fra)
  • Ming Men (eng)
  • Menh Mon (viet)

1.6. Code alphanumérique

  • Go4
  • Gv4
  • TL4
  • 4VG

2. Localisation

2.1. Textes modernes

  • WHO 2009 : In the lumbar region, in the depression inferior to the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra (L2), on the posterior median line.
  • Nguyen Van Nghi 1971 : Dans un creux, au-dessous de l'apophyse épineuse de la 2“ vertèbre lombaire.
  • Roustan 1979 : Au-dessous de l'apophyse épineuse de la deuxième vertèbre lombaire.
  • Ellis 1989 : Below the fourteenth vertebra.
  • Roustan 1989 : Au-dessous de l'apophyse épineuse de la deuxième vertèbre lombaire.
  • Li Ding 1992 : Below the spinous process of L2, at the crossing point of the spinal column and the line linking the inferior borders of the rib arches on either side of the body. This point is at the level of the centre of the umbilicus.
  • Deng 1993 : Sur les reins et sur la ligne médiane postérieure, dans la dépression située au-dessous de l'apophyse épineuse de la deuxième vertèbre lombaire. […] Mingmen (VG4) se trouve sur les reins et sur la ligne médiane postérieure, dans la dépression située au-dessous de l'apophyse épineuse de la deuxième vertèbre lombaire.
  • Pan 1993 : Le point Mingmen se trouve entre l'apophyse épineuse de la deuxième vertèbre lombaire (L2) et celle de la troisième vertèbre lombaire (L3). Au même niveau, à sa droite et à sa gauche, se situent les deux points ShenshuItalique ( 23V ), points Shu du dos qui correspondent aux Reins.
  • Qiu Mao-liang 1993 : Below the spinous process of the 2nd lumbar vertebra
  • Chen 1995 : In a seated or prone position, the point is located on the midline of the back, in the inferior fossa of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra, between the spinous processes of the second and third lumbar vertebrae.
  • Guillaume 1995 : Au-dessous de l'apophyse épineuse de la deuxième vertèbre lombaire.
  • Laurent 2000 : Sous l'apophyse épineuse de la 2° vertèbre lombaire.

Animal

  • Huang GR, Ji F, Lin Y, Zhang ML, Qin W, Zhou Q, Li P. [Discussion on Method for Locating Acupoint “Mingmen” (VG4) in Adult Rats]. Acupuncture Research. 2013;38(2):146-7. [167482]

    “Mingmen” (GV 4) is one of the most frequently used acupoints in acupuncture clinic. In recent years, more and more experimental researches have been focusing on GV 4 or acupoint recipe containing GV 4 in rats. Accurate location of GV 4 is probably not only related to fully display its therapeutic effect, but also to help study its underlying mechanisms. However, there has been no unified standard about the accurate location of GV 4 in the adult rat at present. In the present paper, the authors review related literature about GV 4 location in experimental studies in recent 10 years, and put forward a practical method for locating GV 4 in the rat by combining their own experience. That is, GV 4 is taken according to the relative relationship of ilium and spinous process of the lumbar vertebra. In addition, the authors also recommend some matters needing attention in locating GV 4 in rats.

2.2. Textes classiques

  • Jia Yi : “Au-dessous de la quatorzième vertèbre.” (Deng 1993).

Remarque: Tous les anciens ouvrages de médecine s'accordent sur la localisation de ce point. Mingmen (D.M.4) se trouve sur les reins et sur la ligne médiane postérieure, dans la dépression située au-dessous de l'apophyse épineuse de la deuxième vertèbre lombaire. (Deng 1993)

  • Yi Zong Jin Jian (Golden Mirror) : “Below the fourteenth vertebra”.(Ellis 1989)

2.3. Rapports et coupes anatomiques

  • Rami dorsales des 2° artère et veine lumbalis, rami dorsales du 1er nerf lumbalis. (Roustan 1979]
  • La structure des couches dans lesquelles l'aiguille devra être enfoncée est la même que celle de Yaoyangguan (D.M.3 ). Dans la couche superficielle, on trouve les branches internes des branches postérieures du deuxième nerf lombaire, et l'artère et la veine correspondantes. Dans la couche profonde, on trouve le plexus veineux vertébral externe (postérieur) situé entre chaque apophyse épineuse, les ramifications des branches postérieures du deuxième nerf lombaire, et les branches ou tributaires des branches dorsales des deuxièmes artère et veine lombaires. (Li Ding 1992)
  • Zone concernée : La structure des couches dans lesquelles l'aiguille devra être enfoncée est la même que celle de Yaoyangguan ( 3VG ). Dans la couche superficielle, on trouve les branches internes des branches postérieures du deuxième nerf lombaire, et l'artère et la veine correspondantes. Dans la couche profonde, on trouve le plexus veineux vertébral externe (postérieur) situé entre chaque apophyse épineuse, les ramifications des branches postérieures du deuxième nerf lombaire, et les branches ou tributaires des branches dorsales des deuxièmes artère et veine lombaires (Deng 1993).
  • The lumbodorsal fascia, supraspinal ligament and interspinal ligament; the posterior branch of the lumbar artery, the interspinal venous plexus; the medial branch of the posterior ramus of the lumbar nerve.(Qiu Mao-liang 1993)
  • a. Skin: the medial cutaneous branches containing fibers from the dorsal rami of the second lumbar nerve (L2) innervate the skin. b. Subcutaneous tissue: includes the previously described skin nerve branches. c. Thoracolumbar fascia: consists of superficial and deep layers, and encircles the sacrospinalis muscle. d. Supraspinal ligament and sacrospinalis muscle: the dorsal branches containing fibers from the second lumbar nerve (L2) innervate the supraspinal ligament. The dorsal branches containing fibers from the spinal nerves innervate the sacrospinalis muscle. e. Interspinal ligament: between the spinous process of the second and third lumbar vertebrae. The dorsal branches containing fibers from the second lumbar nerve (L2) innervate the ligament. f. Ligamentum flavum: between the second and third lumbar vertebral arches. If the needle is inserted deeply, it will puncture through the ligamentum flavum into the spinal canal.(Chen 1995)
  • Branches postérieures des artères et des veines lombaires. Branches dorsales de L2. (Guillaume 1995)
  • Yu Yq, Peng H, Yu B, Zhan WX, Yu A. [Three-dimensional Reconstruction Research on Mingmen (GV 4)]. Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 2005;25(6):411-3. (chi). [120454]

    OBJECTIVE: To show the space structures of Mingmen (GV 4) area and its adjacent tissues. METHODS: A frozen female corpse was cut into about 0.5 mm thick sections with a high-speed steel plane machine and photographed with digital and optical camera. Two 2-D transverse phase picture data sets were obtained and then were sequenced, matched, modified and divided. The 3-D reconstruction software was used to reconstruct the outline form of the lumbar part containing Mingmen (GV 4) to attain transverse phase picture data sets (3 022 sheets, 0.57 mm in thickness). The sagittal, coronal and different oblique plane were cut and the tissue structures in these pictures were analyzed. Thus, the reconstruction data sets were obtained. CONCLUSION: After the structures of Mingmen (GV 4) were reconstructed with computer, the form of Mingmen (GV 4) can be dynamically observed from any angle and the space construction law of gross form of Mingmen (GV 4) can be proved.

12VC-6VC-4VG-3VG- Chen 1995
Rapports ponctuels lombo-sacrés du VG - Qiu Mao-liang 1993
Coupe transversale au 4VG - Yan Zhenguo 2002

2.4. Rapports ponctuels

2.5. Localisation chez l'animal

  • Huang GR, Ji F, Lin Y, Zhang ML, Qin W, Zhou Q, Li P. [Discussion on Method for Locating Acupoint “Mingmen” (GV 4) in Adult Rats]. Acupuncture Research. 2013;38(2):146-7. [167482]

    “Mingmen” (GV 4) is one of the most frequently used acupoints in acupuncture clinic. In recent years, more and more experimental researches have been focusing on GV 4 or acupoint recipe containing GV 4 in rats. Accurate location of GV 4 is probably not only related to fully display its therapeutic effect, but also to help study its underlying mechanisms. However, there has been no unified standard about the accurate location of GV 4 in the adult rat at present. In the present paper, the authors review related literature about GV 4 location in experimental studies in recent 10 years, and put forward a practical method for locating GV 4 in the rat by combining their own experience. That is, GV 4 is taken according to the relative relationship of ilium and spinous process of the lumbar vertebra. In addition, the authors also recommend some matters needing attention in locating GV 4 in rats.

3. Classes et fonctions

3.1. Classe ponctuelle

  • Nguyen Van Nghi 1971 : Lorsque ce point est atteint, c'est que le Yang a triomphé du Inn. Le corps est brûlant « comme le feu » et la température est très élevée. Khi Pa, dans Nei King (Chapitre 6), étudiant la combinaison des Inn et des Yang, leur séparation et leur réunion, note au sujet de Taé Yang en fonction de Tou Mo : « La Racine' de Taé Yang est située au point Tché Inn ( 67V ) et son point de terminaison est situé au point Ming Mena (4VG). »

3.2. Classe thérapeutique

  • Roustan 1979: Tonifie les reins, traite la colonne vertébrale.
  • Wang Yifang 1992 : Tt has the function of warming and reinforcing kidney yang.
  • Li Ding 1992: Mingmen (Du 4) is one of the important points for replenishing kidney Yin, consolidating kidney essence, reinforcing kidney Yang and strengthening the lower back and knees. It is also used for general tonification. It is effective in the treatment of lumbar pain, impotence, seminal emission, loose stool and diarrhea due to deficiency of the kidney.
  • Chen 1995: Dredges the channels and regulates the flow of Qi, strengthens the essence of life and reinforces the Yang.
  • Laurent 2000: Ming men renforce le Souffle originel-yuan qi, tonifie les Reins, consolide le Jing, renforce le Yang, tonifie la colonne lombaire, perméabilise les méridiens, vivifie les Luo. Selon le Tai Yi Shen Zhen , Ming men tonifie le Yang et contient l'échappement-tuo, tonifie les Reins, conduit le Feu vers sa source, harmonise le Yin et le Yang. Renforce le Yang des Reins, associé au 52V Zhishi renforce le Yang véritable, consolide le Jing

3.2.1. Tonification du yang

  • Ni Jinfang et al. Effect of Moxibustion on Mingmen on DNA Synthesis Rate in Rat with Yang Deficiency. in Compilation of the Abstracts of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Papers, Beijing. 1987;:194. (eng). [21243]

4. Techniques de stimulation

Acupuncture Moxibustion Source
Piquer perpendiculairement, l'aiguille dirigée vers le haut, à 1-1,5 distance 3-7 fois, chauffer 5-20 minutes Roustan 1979
Puncture obliquely upwards 1-2 cun deep Li Ding 1992
Puncture upwardly obliquely 0.5-1 cun Qiu Mao Liang 1993
Slightly oblique superior insertion 0.5-1.0 inch 3-7 cones; stick 5-20 minutes Chen 1995
Puncture inclinée entre 0,5 et 1 distance de profondeur 3 à 7 cônes, moxibustion 5 à 15 minutes Guillaume 1995
Piqûre oblique vers le haut de 0,5 à 1 cun Moxas : 3 à 7; chauffer 20 à 30 mn Laurent 2000
Qigong : focalisation de l'attention sur un point voir 5.3

Sensation de puncture

  • sensation locale de gonflement; quand on pique profond, le sujet éprouve une sensation de décharge électrique qui diffuse aux membres inférieurs. (Roustan 1979)
  • Local heaviness and distention, radiating laterally. (Li Ding 1992)
  • local distension, and an electrical sensation radiating to the lower extremities. (Chen 1995)

Sécurité

  • Chen 1995 : Don't insert the needle deeply, as it may puncture into the spinal cord. When the needle is inserted through the ligamentum flavum, resistance will suddenly cease. Do not continue to insert the needle. If the needle is inserted into the spinal cord, a strong electrical sensation will be felt and panic will be shown. Extract the needle immediately. No lifting, thrusting and twirling of the needle are permitted.
  • Lei Jing Tu Yi : la moxibustion de Mingmen après l'âge de vingt ans risque de provoquer une stérilité. (Guillaume 1995)
  • Li YD, Yang SD, Li JN, Li L. [Study on needling depth of dazhui (gv 14), jianzhongshu (si 15), xuanshu (gv 5) and mingmen (gv 4) with ct]. Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 2005;25(12):863-4.(chi). [124895].

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for the safe needling depth of Dazhui (GV 14), Jianzhongshu (SI 15), Xuanshu (GV 5) and Mingmen (GV 4) in clinical acupuncture and moxibustion treatment. METHODS: Thirty-two adult volunteers were divided into 3 groups, thin person group, moderate person group and fat person group according to Luo's indexes, and computer-aided tomography was used to measure the needling depth of Dazhui (GV 14), Jianzhongshu (SI 15), Xuanshu (GV 5) and Mingmen (GV 4). RESULTS: The safe depths of perpendicular needling were different for persons of different somatotypes, for example the needling depth for Dazhui (GV 14) was (32.86 +/- 3.96) mm for the thin person group, (37.76 +/- 4.91) mm for the moderate person group, and (47.93 +/- 5.30) mm for the fat person group.

5. Indications

Classe d'usage ★★ point majeur

5.1. Littérature moderne

  • Nguyen Van Nghi 1971 : Points à puncturer dans les cas de : lombalgies, spermatorrhée, impuissance, les quatre membres sont glacés, forte fièvre, céphalées et bourdonnement d'oreilles, annexites, endométrite, leucorrhées.
  • Roustan 1979: Lombalgie, entorse lombaire, perte d'urine (incontinence et énurésie), spermatorrhée, impuissance, leucorrhée, douleur sciatique, néphrite, séquelles de poliomyélite. Autres indications Céphalée, fièvre intermittente, tremblement spasmodique des membres, douleurs lombo-abdominales, douleurs herniaires, métrorragies, prolapsus anal.
  • Li Ding 1992: Lumbar pain, seminal emission, impotence, enuresis, irregular menstruation, leukorrhea and abdominal pain.
  • Qiu Mao-liang 1993 :Impotence, nocturnal emission, leucorrhoea, irregular menstruation, diarrhoea, lumbar spinous stiffness and pain.
  • Lade 1994 :
    • Tonifie les Reins (surtout le Qi et le Yang), tonifie le Qi Originel, régularise la Voie des Eaux, assèche l'Humidité et le Froid-Humidité, réchauffe le Yang et le Froid, et est bénéfique pour les lombes et les os. Indications : troubles des os, néphrite chronique, myélite, neurasthénie par vide de Yang des Reins, menstruations irrégulières, aménorrhée, leucorrhée, saignements utérins anormaux par vide de Yang des Reins, douleur et raideur des lombes, douleur du rein irradiant à l'abdomen, hémorroïdes, incontinence urinaire, dysurie, sang dans les selles par Froid, et diarrhée.
    • Tonifie l'Essence, raffermit le Qi des Reins, et calme le fœtus. Indications : syndrome atrophique par vide de l'Essence, agitation du fœtus par vide des Reins, et tous les troubles sexuels, en particulier impuissance et stérilité.
    • Calme l'Esprit, est bénéfique pour le Cerveau, clarifie le Cerveau, et restaure les collapsus de Yang. Indications : épilepsie, manie, convulsions des enfants, méningite, anémie, désorientation par vide, pertes de mémoire, peur et frayeur, insomnie, somnolence, éblouissements, acouphènes, et membres froids.
  • Chen 1995 : Lower back pain, lower back sprain, leukorrhea, enuresis, nocturnal emission, premature ejaculation, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, sciatic pain, nephritis, sequelae of poliomyelitis.
  • Guillaume 1995 : Raideur douloureuse de la colonne lombaire, pertes d'urine, polyurie, diarrhée liquide, diarrhée dysentériforme, saignement hémorroïdaire, prolapsus rectal, spermatorrhée, impuissance, pertes blanches et rouges, irrégularités menstruelles, céphalée, acouphènes ; lumbago aigu, sciatalgie, néphrite, inflammation pelvienne, fausse couche, paraplégie ou paresthésies-ma bi des membres inférieurs.
  • Laurent 2000 : arrête les leucorrhées, fortifie lombes et genoux, rend les menstruations harmonieuses, traite le rachis.

5.2. Littérature ancienne

Guillaume 1995 :

  • Jia Yi jing : « Céphalée à type de cassure, corps chaud comme du feu, absence de transpiration, spasmes avec frissons et fièvre, absence de transpiration et crainte du Froid, intérieur pressé-li ji, douleur lombaire et douleur abdominale qui se répondent. »
  • Qian Jin Yao Fang : « Chaleur des Cinq Organes, chaleur du corps, pouls en corde et pressé (xian ji). » « Devant une lombalgie avec difficulté de mobilisation, demander au malade de se tenir debout, mesurer avec une canne la hauteur qui sépare l'ombilic du sol et la reporter sur la colonne, faire des moxas au niveau de l'extrémité de la canne dont le nombre est fonction de l'âge. En cas de fistule hémorroïdaire hémorragique chez l'homme, de prolapsus rectal avec inappétence, de diarrhée glaireuse chronique, de ménométrorragie, de pertes blanches et rouges, d'uréthrite-lin, faire des moxas sur Ming men- 4VG. »
  • Ishimpo : Céphalée avec sensation de tête fissurée ; chaleur du corps comme du feu ; absence de transpiration ; spasmes; perturbation interne aiguë affectant le dos et l'abdomen.
  • Shang hui fang : « Accès de froid et de chaleur (frissons et fièvre), maladie pernicieuse-jie nue. »
  • Shennong jing : « En cas de lombalgie, faire 7 cônes de moxa sur Ming men. »
  • Yu Long Fu : « Dans la pollakiurie du sujet âgé, faire des moxas en association avec Shen shu - 23V . »
  • Biao You Fu : « Associé à Gan shu - 18V , il peut améliorer la vue.»
  • Zhen Jiu Ju Ying : « Selon Tong Ren , puncturer à 0,5 distance, appliquer 2 cônes de moxa. Indications : céphalée à type de cassure, chaleur du corps comme du feu, absence de transpiration, frissons et fièvre dans les maladies pernicieuses-jie nue, douleur de la colonne lombaire qui irradie vers la région abdominale, chaleur des os-gu zheng, chaleur des Cinq Organes, convulsions du nourrisson xiao er fa xian qui ouvre la bouche, hoche la tête et dont le corps est en hyperextension. »
  • Yi Xue Ru Men : « Céphalée à type de cassure, corps chaud comme du feu, absence de transpiration, convulsions-chi zong avec sensation d'être pressé à l'intérieur, douleur lombaire et abdominale. »
  • Da Cheng : « Céphalée à type de cassure, chaleur du corps comme du feu, absence de transpiration, frissons et fièvre dans les maladies pernicieuses-jie nue, douleur de la colonne lombaire, chaleur des os-gu zheng, chaleur des Cinq Organes, convulsions du nourrisson xiao er fa xian qui ouvre la bouche, hoche la tête et dont le corps est en hyperextension. »
  • Xun Jing : « Les différents types de lombalgie par surmenage et par vide, raideur de la colonne avec impossibilité de se pencher et de se redresser ; hémorroïdes chroniques ; chez l'homme : spermatorrhée, uréthrite ; chez la femme : pertes rouges et blanches. »
  • Lei Jing Tu Yi : « Certains disent que Ming men est à l'horizontale de l'ombilic, il faut s'aider d'un fil pour le localiser, puncture à 5 fen de profondeur et moxibustion avec 3 cônes de moxa. Pour d'autres, il faut le puncturer à 3 fen et il est possible de faire 27 cônes de moxa. Chez un patient âgé de plus de vingt ans, la moxibustion peut entraîner une stérilité. » « Vide de Rein avec lombalgie, pertes blanches et rouges, spermatorrhée avec bourdonnements d'oreille, Bi froid-leng bi des mains et des pieds, hernie-luan shan, terreur-jing kong avec vertiges, céphalée à type de cassure, corps chaud comme du feu, chaleur des os-gu zheng avec absence de transpiration, maladie pernicieuse-jie nue et convulsions-chi zong, ténesme avec douleur abdominale. » « Selon certains, la moxibustion traite avec efficacité les accès de frissons et de fièvre. »
  • Tai Yi Shen Zhen : « Céphalée à type de cassure, le corps est chaud comme du feu, chaleur des os-gu zheng, chaleur des organes, indigestion, fièvre et frissons dans les maladies pernicieuses-jie nue, douleur abdominale et lombaire, pollakiurie, convulsions du nourrisson-xiao er jing xian. »

5.3. Associations

Indication Association Source
Anémie sidéroprive 4VG + 36E + 11GI + 17V + 14VG Shanghai zhen jiu xue (Roustan 1979, Guillaume 1995)
Pertes d'urines 4VG + 20VG + 4VC + 6Rte + 33V Shanghai zhen jiu xue (Roustan 1979, Guillaume 1995)
Pollakiurie des vieillards 4VG + 23V Yu Long Ge (Roustan 1979, Guillaume 1995))
Déficience des reins (lumbar pain, impotence, seminal emission, loose stool and diarrhea 4VG + 23V + 31V + 32V + 3V + 34V + 4VC + 6Rte Li Ding 1992
Impuissance 4VG + 23V + 6VC + 2Rn Lei Jing Tu Yi (Guillaume 1995)
Lombalgie du sujet âgé 4VG + 23V Ji Cheng (Guillaume 1995)
  • Shen Xue-yong. [Clinical Examples of Combined Use of Points Mingmen and Guanyuan]. Shanghai Journal of TCM. 2001;35(1):32. (chi). [89097]

    Points Mingmen (GV4) and Guanyuan (GV4) are on the front and back parts of the body, and pertain to yin and yang innature respectively. Puncturing the two points can nourish yin and yang, and regulate the balance of the body to invigorate kidney-essence, nourish yuan-qi (original qi) and free lower energizer to be quite effective against prostatomegaly, lumbago, dawn diarrhea, menalgia and impotence.

  • Shen Xueyong (Translated by Tao Jingwen. On the Combined Use of Mingmen and Guanyuan. Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2002;68:25. (eng). [103991]

5.4. Qigong : Indications de la focalisation de l'attention sur le point

symptomes zheng auteur
aversion to cold
lumbago
emission
dificiency of kidney yang and
declining of fire of Life—Gate (primary qi in kidney)
Wang Yifang 1992
  • Wang Yifang 1992 : When selecting it as the concentration point, the practitioner may concentrate the mind on the umbilicus firstly and then gradually move the concentration point deeper and deeper until Mingmen point (DU 4) is concentrated.

on.

5.5. Revues des indications

  • Mu Hua-ming et al. Experience with Mingmen : some illustrative cases. International Journal of Acupuncture. 1997;8(4):393-95. [87064]

    Douleur abdominale - Grippe prolongée - Diarrhée matinale - Sciatique

6. Etudes cliniques et expérimentales

6.1. Thyroidite d'Hashimoto

  • Xia Y, Xia Mz, Li Y, Liu Sm, Ju Zy, He Js. [Effect of Aconite Cake-separated Moxibustion at Guanyuan (cv 4) and Mingmen (gv 4) on Thyroid Function in Patients of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis]. Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 2012;32(2):123-6. [162288]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects on thyroid function in patients of Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated with aconite cake-separated moxibustion and option the better therapeutic program. METHODS: Eighty-five cases were randomly divided into a moxibustion group (42 cases) and a western medication group (43 cases). The moxibustion group was treated by aconite cake-separated moxibustion therapy with acupoints of two groups: (1) Danzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12), Guanyuan (CV 4); (2) Dazhui (GV 14), Shenshu (BL 23), Mingmen (GV 4) alternatively and oral administration of 25 microg Euthyrox everyday. The western medication group was oral administration of 25 microg Euthyrox everyday. Indices of thyroid function before and after treatment and clinical effect were compared between two groups. RESULTS: The clinical total effective rate and effective rate of thyroid function were 25.0% (10/40), 87.5% (35/40) in moxibustion group respectively, 7.53% (3/40) and 57.5% (23/40) in western medication group, with significant differences between two groups (both P < 0.05). Content of serum free thyroxine index (FT4) increased significantly in the moxibustion group after treatment (P < 0.01); content of serum supersensitive thyrotropin (S-TSH) in the moxibustion group was lower than that of western medication group, and contents of serum FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were higher than those of western medication group, but with no significant differences (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Aconite cake-separated moxibustion at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Mingmen (GV 4) combined with oral administration of Euthyrox can improve clinical symptoms and thyroid function in patients of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which is better than simple oral administration of Euthyrox.

6.2. Diarrhée chronique

  • Zhao Zhongshun. [Clinical Observation on 29 cases of Chronic Diarrhea Treated by Moxibustion on Mingmen (du4)]. Acupuncture Research. 1992;17(4):292. [44842]
  • Shen Xueyong. Acupuncture Treatment for Kidney Deficiency with Combined Application of Points Mingmen and Guanyuan. Journal of TCM. 1996;16(4):275-7. [56850]

    The combined application of the two points in acupuncture treatment provides an excellent therapeutic effect of seeking yang from yin and yin from yang, tonifying yin without injuring yang and reinforcing yang without damaging yin. This method of treatment may regulate and strengthen both yin and yang and balance them so as to tonify kidney essence, strengthen primordial qi as well as the lower—jiao.

6.3. Insomnies

  • Liu H, Lan B, Liu X. [Intersive Moxibustion at Guanyuan (cv 4) and Mingmen (gv 4) for 56 cases of Intractable Insomnia]. Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 2015;35(3):274. [182606]

6.4. Arthrite expérimentale

  • Bao Yi-mei, Li Wen-yang,Song Xiao-ping. [Comparative Research of the Influence ahout the Acu-point MingMen and the acu-point Guanyuan medicinal ye.- sioulation in adjuvant arthritis rats]. journal of clinical acupuncture and moxibustion. 2010;26(9):54. [174315]

    Objective: To explore the influence of the acu -point Ming Men and the acu -point Guan Yuan medicinal vesiculation the cellular immunity in adjuvant arthritis rats. To explore the difference of the two groups in the cellular immunity in adjuvant. Methods: Rats model of adjuvant arthritis ( AA) were made and randomized into control group ,model group ,model and medicinal Vesiculation the acu - point Ming Men group , model and medicinal Vesiculation the acu - point Guan Yuan group. The inhibitory effects on acute paw edema were observed and the paw thick and the levels of serum IL-2 levels were determined in experimental rats. Account the big rats Spleen,the thymus gland index number. To explore the influence of the acu -point Ming Men group,and the acu -point Guan Yuan medicinal vesiculation the eel工tilar immunity in adjuvant arthritis Rats. Results:(1) The activities of IL -2 in the serum were significantly raised.The guan Yuan are better than the Mmn Men group in the affection of IL -2 and the arthritis index number. The differences have significant factors( P<0.05 -0. 0083).(2) The big rat the thymus 斟and index number were significan街raised. The big rat's Spleen index number was significantly decreased. But the differences between the two Vesiculation groups have not significant factors. Conclusion : As far as the IL-2 in the serum are concerned, medicinal Ve-siculation of the acu - point Ming Men group, and the acu - points Guan Yuan have positive immunoregulation affec-. tion in AA rats. It may raise the activities of IL-2 in the serum . The guan Yuan are better than the Mmn Men group in the affection of IL-2.

  • Li Hui, Li Xiao-Hong, Zhang Lu-Fen, et al. [Influence of Electroacupuncture of “Dazhui” (GV 14) and “Mingmen” (GV 4) on Stress-related Factors in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats]. Acupuncture Research. 2006;31(1):8. [141678]

    Objective: To study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of “Dazhui” (GV 14) and “Mingmen” (GV 4) on hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol (Cort) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a contents in adjuvant arthritis rats. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were evenly randomized into normal control, model, EA-GV14 and EA-GV4 groups. Arthritis model was established by subcutaneous injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA, 0.1 mL) into the right hind-paw. EA (15 Hz, continuous pulses, 1 mA) was applied to “Dazhui”(GV 14) and “Mingmen” (GV 4) for 20 min, once every other day and continuously for 8 times. After the rats were killed, hypothalam­ic tissue and blood sannple were taken for detecting hypothalamic CRH, plasma ACTH, serum Cort and TNF-a contents with ra‑dioimmunoassay. Results: Compared with normal control group, the swelling rate of the right hindpaw 24 h after injection of FCA and 16 days after EA increased significantly (P< 0.01); while in comparison with model group, the swelling rates of EA-GV14 and EA-GV4 groups were markedly lower (P<0.01). Compared with normal control group, hypothalamic CRH, plasma ACTH, serum Cort and TNF-a contents of model group increased significantly ( P< 0.05); while in comparison with model group, hy­pothalamic CRH serum Cort and TNF-a contents in EA-GV14 group, and serum Cort level in EA-GV4 group decreased significantly (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between EA-GV14 and EA-GV4 groups ( P >0.05) in these 4 indexes. Conclusion: EA has a marked anti-inflammatory effect in adjuvant arthritis rats and can relieve arthritis stress induced increase of hy­pothalamic CRH, plasma ACTH, serum Cort and TNF-a levels.

  • Li H, Li Xh, Zhang LF. [Influence of Electroacupuncture of “Dazhui” (GV 14) “Mingmen” (GV 4) and non-acupoint on the Inflammation and Immune Reactions in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats]. Acupuncture Research. 2009;34(4):225-9. [156516]

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the levels of lymphocyte proliferation rate, spleen and serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), so as to analyze its immuno-regulative function in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats.METHODS: A total of 40 Wistar rats were randomized into normal control, model, Dazhui (GV 14), Mingmen (GV 4) and non-acupoint groups. Adjuvant arthritis model was established by subcutaneous injection of Freund's complete adjuvant into the paw. EA was applied to “Dazhui” (GV 14), “Mingmen” (GV 4) and non-acupoint (mid-tail) for 20 min, once every other day, 8 times altogether. Paw volume (swelling degree of the voix pedis) was detected; T and B lymphocyte transformation rates (LTR), and IL-2 activity of the spleen tissue were assayed with MTT chromatometry, and serum IL-2 and TNF-alpha contents were determined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Compared to normal group, the paw volume and serum TNF-alpha content of model group increased significantly (P < 0:01, P < 0.05), and T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation rates and spleen IL-2 activity in model group decreased considerably (P < 0.01). In comparison with model group, paw volumes of GV 14, GV 4, and non-acupoint groups and serum TNF-alpha content of GV 14 group lowered significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05); while T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation rates, spleen IL-2 activity in GV 14, GV 4, and non-acupoint groups, as well as serum IL-2 content in GV 14 and GV 4 groups increased remarkably (P < 0.01). Paw volumes of both GV 14 and GV 4 groups were significantly lower than that of non-acupoint group (P < 0.05); T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation rates and IL-2 activity of GV 4 group were significantly higher than those of non-acupoint group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between GV 14 and GV 4 groups in paw volume, T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation rates, spleen IL-2 activity, serum IL-2 and TNF-alpha contents, and between GV 14 and non-acupoint groups in T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation rates, as well as among GV 14, GV 4 and non-acupoint groups in serum IL-2 and TNF-alpha contents (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture of GV 14 and GV 4 induced immunoregulation on lymphocyte, IL-2 and TNF-alpha may contribute to its anti-inflammation effect in AA rats.

  • Kogure M, Mimura N, Ikemoto H, Ishikawa S, Nakanishi-Ueda T, Sunagawa M, Hisamitsu T. Moxibustion at Mingmen Reduces Inflammation and Decreases il-6 in a Collagen-Induced Arthritis Mouse Model. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies. 2012;5(1):29-33. [164872]

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of moxibustion (MOX) treatment at the GV4 and CV12 acupoints, and to determine the correlations between MOX treatment and interleukin (IL)-6 and corticosterone levels in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CIA mice were immunized twice intradermally over a 3-week interval with bovine type II collagen. After the second immunization (day 21), MOX was applied to the mouse equivalent of the GV4 and CV12 acupoints with a 1mg moxa cone five times/day. Clinical symptoms of CIA were observed three times/week until day 35. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone in the blood samples were measured by immunoassay kits. At day 35, the incidence of CIA was significantly decreased in mice treated with MOX at the GV4 acupoint (78%, n=23, p<0.05), compared to untreated CIA mice (100%) and mice treated with MOX at the CV12 acupoint (100%). IL-6 and corticosterone levels were significantly increased by immunization. IL-6 levels significantly decreased in mice treated with MOX at the GV4 acupoint. These results suggest that MOX treatment suppressed CIA at the GV4 acupoint, not at the CV12 acupoint, possibly through inhibition of IL-6 production.

6.5. Ostéoporose

  • Huang GR, Li P, Lin Y, Fan HL, Zhang ML, Qin W, Zhou Q, Ji F. [Effect of Electroacupuncture of “Mingmen” (GV 4) on Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Expression in Osteoporosis Rats]. Acupuncture Research. 2014;39(2):130-5. [172407]

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of “Mingmen” (GV 4) on the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) content and biomechanics in osteoporosis rats so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of osteoporosis. METHODS: Fifty female SD rats were randomized into sham operation (sham), model, EA-GV 4, EA-non-acupoint (non-acupoint) and estrogen (medication) groups, with 10 rats in each group. Postmenopausal osteoporosis model was established by removing the rats' bilateral ovaries under anesthesia. EA (2 Hz/15 Hz, 1.0 mA) was applied to “Mingmen” (GV 4) or non-acupoint for 20 min, once daily for 30 times, with one day's interval between every two 10 times. Rats of the medication group were lavaged with Pentanoic Acid Estradiol (25 microg/mL, 2 mL/500 g), once every day (the dosage of estradiol was adjusted according to their body weight) continuously for 1 month. Rats of the model and sham groups experienced the fixing and fastening procedures as the other rats in the EA and medication groups. After intervention, the BMP-2 expression level of the femoral bone tissue, and bone biomechanical values were determined by immunohistochemistry and three-point bending tests, respectively. RESULTS: (1) In comparison with the sham operation group, the femoral biochemical maximum load and fracture load values were significantly decreased in the model group (P < 0.05). While compared with the model group, the biochemical maximum load and fracture load values were obviously increased in the EA-GV 4 and medication groups (P < 0.05), but not in the non-acupoint group (P > 0.05). (2) Compared with the sham group, the femoral BMP-2 expression of model group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), compared with the model group, the expression of BMP-2 of GV 4 and medication groups significantly increased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EA-GV 4 intervention can improve bone biomechanical changes in osteoporosis rats.

6.6. Oedème rénal

  • Qian Ying. [Humoral Regulation Theory of Mingmen-sanjiao Points and the Treatment of Nephritic Edema : the experience of the veteran]. beijing journal of traditional chinese medicine. 1988;1:4. (chi). [33333]

6.7. Immunologie

  • Luo Yongzhen et al. [Immune Function of Erythrocyte in Rabbits Influenced by Mingmen Point with Moxibustion]. Acta Medica Sinica. 1990;5(4):17-8. (chi). [60828]

6.8. Gérontologie

  • Yan Zhang and Bingde Luo. Regulating Inflamnmatory Response Genes: Studies of the Anti-aging Effects of Moxibustion on the Mingmen Point Using Gene Profile Analysis. International Journal of Clinical Acupuncture. 2009;1:35-42. (eng). [162833]

    To explore the molecular mechanism for the anti-aging effect of moxibustion on the Mingmen point. Methods: Old rats were divided into two groups: The “Old Control Group” and the “Old Moxibustion Group.” A “Young Group” was also studied. The molecular mechanism was studied by using Illumina rat whole genome expression chips. Results: 22 genes that were involved in the intlammatory response were up-regulated in the Old Group compared to the Young Group. With the treatment of moxibustion on the Mingmen point, 14 gene expressions were restored to normal and 5 gene expressions were marked closer to the expression levels detected in the young rats. Conclusion: Moxibustion on the mingmen point may influence the inflammatory response genes of old rats, driving them to more closely resemble those occurring in the young rats and to achieve an “anti-aging” effect.

7. Références